Every election, I publish a Voter’s Guide trying to identify the most progressive candidates running for office in Alameda County. I do as much research as I can on the candidates, send out questionnaires and meet with them when possible. And yet, often times I get it wrong. I recommend a candidate who then turns out to be less than progressive while in office.
This time, I’m going to be more cautious. I’m only recommending candidates who are bonafide progressives, who supported Bernie Sanders in the primary, and have a record of standing up for social justice and civil liberties. In cases where there are no such candidates in a race, or where I’m not exactly sure of just how progressive they are, I’ll tell you how I will or would vote, but I won’t make a formal recommendation (unless it’s to avoid voting for a particularly conservative choice).
I appreciate your comments.
At Large: No recommendation
Long term incumbent Chris Peeples faces retired bus driver Dollene Jones. Peeples is a strong progressive, but he has been criticized for supporting the purchase of expensive Belgium made buses and has lost the confidence of some public transit advocates. Jones, meanwhile, didn’t answer my questionnaire because she was afraid someone would steal her ideas. I’ll personally be voting for Peeples in this race.
Ward 2: No recommendations
District 3: Rebecca Saltzman*
Rebecca represents my district and she has been extremely responsive whenever we’ve contacted her with any concerns. She has been particularly good on issues concerning surveillance and police brutality, and she voted to not press charges against the BART protesters. I’m strongly recommending her and I will be voting for her.
* I’m not actually sure Rebecca was a Bernie supporter.
District 5: No recommendation
Incumbent John McPartland supported prosecuting the BART protesters and would support similar prosecutions in the future, so I cannot recommend him. His challenger, however, is former Pleasanton Mayor Jennifer Hosterman, who did not provide specific answers to my questionnaire. In other interviews, she expressed opposition to Measure RR (the BART bond that will allow for the modernization of the system), while acknowledging that the system does need to be modernized. She seems to be running in an anti-labor platform, and I see no compelling reason to support her. I’d probably just not vote on this race.
District 7: Don’t vote for incumbent Zakhari Mallett
Mallet was elected on contractor money, and has shown no interest in being accessible to the community. He did not answer either my questionnaire or the Green Party’s. Mallet, moreover, strongly sided against labor in past disputes. Both the Democratic and Green parties have endorsed Lateefah Simon, but she has not answered my questionnaire, so I don’t know anything about her views on freedom speech, surveillance and policing in BART. Will Roscoe did not answer my questionnaire and Roland Emerson is too pro-surveillance and anti-protest to get my vote (if I was voting in that district). I’d probably vote for Simon as she’s the most viable candidate against Mallet.
WARD 2: Dee Rosario
I hesitate a little in making this recommendation because I don’t know Rosario that well. Still, his answers to my questionnaire were good and he showed a lot of knowledge and, most imporantly, passion for parks during the Democratic endorsement interview. He is in favor of returning the armored vehicle that EBRP police has. Rosario has gotten the endorsement of both the Democratic and Green parties.
WARD 4: No recommendation
Ellen Corbett is my former State Senator. She’s a moderate liberal, with a strong record on consumer rights. She will surely be a competent board member, and her extensive government experience will surely be useful for the park district, but I don’t fully know how much baggage she will also be bringing into this role. She did, of course, get the Democratic endorsement. Daniel Chesmore is a very young, enthusiastic politician-in-the-making. He seems quite progressive, but he works (or worked) for a charter school organization, which gives me a little bit of pause. Otis Lee Sanders, meanwhile, did not respond to my e-mails. I have not yet made up my mind how I’ll vote in this race.
COMMUNITY COLLEGE BOARDS
Chabot, District 7: William Macedo
This is a tepid recommendation, as I have not spoken with Mr. Macedo. His answers to my questionnaire were fine. He received the Democratic endorsement and the Green Party did not endorse in this race (the Green Party usually only endorses in the northwestern part of Alameda County). His opponent, Edralin Maduli, is a Republican and did not answer my questionnaire. I’d vote for Macedo.
Peralta, District 6: No recommendation
Neither Nick Resnick nor Karen Weinstein responded to my questionnaire, though I’m in the process of scheduling a phone call with Resnick. They were both interviewed for the Democratic endorsement and neither seemed to have a particularly deep understanding of the financial issues concerning the district. Otherwise, their answers were very similar. Labor is backing Weinstein because Resnick has a work relationship with a charter school organization, and for that reason she received the endorsement of the Democratic party. The Green Party endorsed her because Resnick did not return their questionnaire. I have not yet made up my mind how I’d vote in this race.
City of ALAMEDA
City Council (choose 2): Don’t vote for Malia Vella
No progressives are running on this race and there are just no good or even mildly acceptable choices. None of the candidates responded to my questions or invitation to speak.
Malia Vella is probably the worst of the bunch. She is a political operative with endless political ambitions. She has moved around different jobs working for Democratic politicians and unions, and likes to work behind the scenes supporting candidates that can help her political career. She is originally from San Leandro, where she has backed candidates that support mass surveillance and police militarization, while opposing rent control. Labor has poured tens of thousands of dollars into her race and she’s supported by the Firefighters union and the conservative Alamedans United PAC. The Green Party recommends voters do not vote for her, while the Democratic Party had endorsed her.
Incumbent Marilyn Ashcraft has also received the endorsement of the Democratic Party and the anti-endorsement of the Green Party, and is also supported by the Alamedans United PAC. She has an undistinguished record as a Council member. Tony Daysog is a self-described conservative who opposes rent control. Lena Tam voted to militarize the Alameda Police when she previously in the City Council. Jennifer Roloff is the only newcomer and she got the Green Party’s endorsement, but she didn’t reply to my questions. I’d probably just vote for Roloff in this race.
School Board (choose 3): No recommendations
Gray Harris is a former teacher who has been active in Democratic politics. She is very progressive and I’ve heard she’s a great teacher. She was appointed to the Board and apparently she is doing a fairly good job. However, I have not taken the time to watch those board meetings, so I cannot endorse her.
Ardella Daily, Matt Hettich and Jennifer Williams did not answer my questionnaires, while Dennis Popalardo did, so he would get my second vote by default. I had a great meeting with Anne McKereghan, and while she’s definitely more conservative than I am, I was impressed by her personal commitment to Alameda schools, where she has been a parent volunteer for many years. I would vote for Gray Harris, Dennis Popalardo and Anne McKereghan.
City Auditor: No recommendation
City Treasurer: No recommendation
These are two very technical positions and I did not research how good a job the incumbents were doing to be able to make a recommendation one way or the other as to whether to vote for them. I’d vote for the incumbents in both races.
City Council (choose 3): No recommendations
The only candidate to answer my questionnaire was Amber Whitson, though Nick Pilch has reached out and I’m trying to schedule an interview. If I was in Albany I’d probably vote for Amber, just to bring a new voice and a very different perspective to the City Council, but she probably lacks the knowledge of City Hall that would make her an effective council member.
Incumbent Michael Barnes refused to answer my questionnaire, claiming he was no longer a Democrat. The Green Party recommends you vote against him given his history of vitriol and personal attacks in public fora. As mentioned, Erik Giesen-Fields and incumbent Peter Maas did not return my questionnaire. I’d probably vote for for Whitson and Pilch on this race.
School Board (choose 2): No recommendations
Kim Trutane, Jon Raj Destin and Clementina Duron all seem well qualified, progressive candidates that would do a good job in the Albany School Board. Jacob Clark, a teacher in San Leandro schools no less, did not return my questionnaire or the Green Party’s. I’d probably vote for Trutane and Destin.
Berkeley has ranked choice voting.
Mayor: Jesse Arreguin
This race is mostly between Council members Jesse Arreguin, who was endorsed by Bernie Sanders himself, and Laurie Capitelli who has refused to call himself a progressive. Write down Kriss Worthington as your second choice. I’d vote for 1) Jesse Arreguin, 2) Kriss Worthington, 3) leave blank
City Council District 2: Cheryl Davila
Darryl Moore did not respond to either my questionnaire or the Green Party’s and he has consistently voted with the regressive forces in the Berkeley City Council.
Cheryl Davila is a strong progressive who has the guts to say she’s voting for Jill Stein – in a year where Stein supporters have been harassed and insulted ad infinitum by establishment types. Then again, so is her opponent Nancy Armstrong-Temple. Both come highly recommended by progressive activists I respect very much. I believe they both will champion social justice and human rights in Berkeley. Davila returned my questionnaire, so I’m more inclined to vote for her first. I’d ranked choice vote 1) Davila and 2) Armstrong-Temple.
City Council District 3: No recommendations
None of the candidates answered my questionnaire and only two answered the Green Party’s. Ben Bartlett’s complete answers are not online (or were not submitted) but he got the nod as the number one choice from the Green Party, as well as the Democratic endorsement. He is also the choice of the progressive politicians in Berkeley. Both Al Murray and Mark Coplan seem run-of-the mill moderate progressives. I’d probably vote for 1) Bartlett, 2) Coplan, 3) Murray
City Council District 5: Sophie Hahn
Sophie Hahn is a strong progressive, with a history of women’s rights and human rights activism, as well as with deep involvement in her own community. She is supported by and will vote with the progressive side of the Council. She has my full endorsement. I’d vote for Sophie Hahn.
City Council District 6: Frederick Denman Dodsworth, III
Frederick Denman Dodsworth, III is a very strong progressive and out of the box thinker. He’s exactly the sort of morally courageous not-quite politician that you want to have make decisions at City Hall. He has my full endorsement. I did not get a questionnaire back form Isabelle Gaston, but I would rank her second simply because she is not incumbent Susan Wengraf, whose lack of respect for human dignity was made apparent by her advocacy of the sit-lie ordinance (which Berkeley voters wisely rejected). Wengraf was endorsed by the Democratic Party and anti-endorsed by the Green Party. I’d vote 1) Fred Dodsworth, 2) Isabelle Gaston
School Board (choose 2): No recommendations
Incumbents Beatriz Leyva-Cutler and Judith Appel are typical Berkeley progressives and seem competent in their positions. I would probably vote for them if I was a Berkeley resident. Challenger Abdur Sikder did not return my questionnaire and his answers to the Green Party’s one were uninspiring. I’d vote for Leyva-Cutler and Appel.
Rent Review Board (choose 4): Alejandro Soto-Vigil, Christina Murphy, Leah Simon-Weisberg, Igor Tregub
This is the progressive, pro-rent control slate. And they’ve actually been endorsed by Bernie Sanders! I’d vote for Soto-Vigil, Murphy, Simon-Weisberg and Tregub.
School Board (choose 3): No recommendations
I received answers to my questionnaire from Tojo Thomas and heard Lavender Whitaker and Monica Lee speak at the Democratic endorsements. The three are supported by the teachers’ union. Suresh Gupta and incumbent Jo A.S. Loss did not return my questionnaires. I’d vote for Thomas, Whitaker and Lee.
Mayor: No recommendation
The Mayor is a Republican while his opponent is a perennial candidate, who has run for an office or the other for the last 28 years. I’d do a funny write-in.
City Council (choose 2): Arun Goel (Don’t vote for Hernandez Strah or Wehrenberg)
Arun Goel is a strong smart growth, clean money, Bernie Sanders progressive. He’s served in the Planning Commission and is concern about transparency and dirty money in city politics. I met with him for a couple of hours, and I was very impressed with his integrity and the value he puts on community input and evidence and policy-based decisions (as opposed to lobbyst based). He faces a strong challenge from developer-backed candidates Melissa Hernandez Strah and Doreen Wehrenberg, a Republican.
I was not able to contact the remaining candidate, Mona Lisa Ballesteros, until recently, and until I get her answers I cannot specifically recommend her. I’d vote for Goel.
School Board (vote for 3): No recommendations yet
School Board, Short Term (vote for 1): No recommendations yet
I was not able to contact all candidates early, so I’m leaving this races open.
City Council (choose 3): No recommendations yet
Emeryville’s two blogs have done a great job of interviewing candidates, and I’m still not done going through all their answers.
School Board (choose 2): No recommendations
Barbara Inch gave great answers both to my questionnaire and the Green Party’s. She is a Clinton supporter, however. She got both the Democratic and Green party endorsements. Cruz Vargas didn’t answer either questionnaire and Ken Bukowski answered the Green Party’s but not mine. I was not impressed by his answers. Still, Emery School Board President John Affeldt just resigned, so there will be one more vacancy in the district, so it’s likely that whoever doesn’t get elected will get appointed. I would probably vote for Barbara Inch.
Mayor: No recommendation
Current Mayor Bill Harrison is a Democrat and active in the party, but he takes copious campaign contributions from developers and votes to do their bidding. He has also voted for mass surveillance and against allowing marijuana cultivation or the delivery of medical marijuana within Fremont. Challenger City Council member Lily Mei shares his anti-civil liberties agenda, but does not take money from developers or is a guaranteed vote for developer interests. She’s running in a slate with Cullen Tiernan and Vinnie Bacon, whom I do support, but as a School Board members he voted to prohibit an AP English teacher from teaching an award winning book because she objected to the subject matter. Neither Harrison nor Mei responded to my questions or request to talk. I’d write-in Mickey Mouse.
City Council (choose 2): Cullen Tiernan and Vinnie Bacon
Click on their names to read my full explanation for this recommendation. I’d vote for Tiernan and Bacon.
School Board (choose 3): No recommendation
Fremont has four good candidates for School Board, who seem to have similar ideologies and commitment to education. Ann Crosbie has been in the School Board for a while and is active in the Democratic Party. Desrie Campbell, has been there for a term and she brings a diversity perspective that may otherwise be lacking in the Board. Michelle Berke is a special education teacher, specializing in deaf education and Dax Choksi is a techie dad wanting to bring that emphasis into the district. They are all intelligent people, even if not as progressive as I might like (Crosbie, Campbell and Choksi filled out my questionnaire and suggested they were Clinton supporters, Berke and Hiu Ng did not fill it out). Of the bunch, I was most inspired by Michelle Berke‘s energy and positivity and I see her as the one making the most change. I would vote for Berke and I’m not sure who else.
The Hayward School Board is a big mess. Incumbent candidate John Taylor actually took advantage of the district’s print shop to get heavily discounted printing done for his business and City Council campaign, and then didn’t even pay for it. He also had the n0w-fired Superintendent act as his Campaign Treasurer, a pretty big conflict of interest. Meanwhile, the Superintendent was giving contracts to former Board members and the Board is in complete disarray, with members fighting and insulting each other. Hayward schools now need a new Superintendent, but nobody will want to work with the existing Board, so it’s time to vote all the incumbents away.
Some community members have gotten together and created a slate with candidates Daniel Goldstein, Robert Carlson and Todd E. Davis. Of the three, only Davis was able to get the endorsement of the Democratic Party. Carlson is a Republican, and Goldstein apparently has some extremist views which I need to further find out about. Wynn Grcich is a Republican and I couldn’t find any information, including contact info, on Joe Ramos. If I was in Hayward, at this point I would only vote for Todd Davis.
(choose3): Don’t vote for Michael Ritchie
Jeff Wang was the only candidate to answer my questionnaire, but his answers were intelligent, well thought out and progressive – which is puzzling given that he is a registered Republican. I never was able to figure out a time to meet with Lance Nishihira, but based on his blog, he sounds like an intelligent progressive candidate. I could make no such determination about Sharan Kaur, who gives very little information about her views on her webpage. Meanwhile, incumbent Jonas Dino does not seem to have even bothered with a web page. After 16 years as a School Board member, he may feel like he doesn’t need it. Alas, I couldn’t find much about him beyond the fact that he is an independent and was in the School Board when the district was sued by the ACLU for violating students’ fourth amendment rights (they settled).
Finally, appointed Michael Ritchie actually refused to answer my questions. If I was a voter in Union City, I’d vote for Wang and Nishihira.
Oakland has ranked choice elections.
City Council, At Large: Matt Hummel
Matt Hummel is a former Occupy Oakland and Bernie Sanders activist, deeply involved with the community. He’s currently the Chair of the Cannabis Regulatory Commission. He supports all the right things and would be perfect to have in the Council. However, he may be too progressive even for Oakland so the ranked choice system was created just for candidates like him: so you can vote for them first, without having to worry that you’ll be splitting the progressive vote and letting a conservative win.
Your second choice vote thus should go to incumbent Rebecca Kaplan. Kaplan is sometimes too much of a politician, and often it takes her too long to throw her weight behind the right issues, but she ultimately does and she’s a strong progressive vote on most issues. Her help defeating the DAC and establishing the police accountability commission was invaluable. Rebecca was a strong Bernie supporter during the primary and spoke at Bernie rallies.
I had a long meeting with Bruce Quan and came out impressed by his intelligence, his vast experience and his willingness to spend his own money to run a campaign he’s unlikely to win because he’s tired of the cat fighting at the City Council and the lack of progressive change in Oakland. He seems very concerned about reforming the police, creating real affordable housing and dealing with issues of gentrification. I’m recommending him third because he wasn’t as prominent a Bernie backer as Kaplan was.
Whatever you do, don’t vote for Peggy Moore or Nancy Sidebotham. Sidebotham seems very conservative, she’s against the police commission, rent control and pretty much everything. Moore, meanwhile, is running to be a vote for Mayor Libby Schaaf in the Council (she’s currently Schaaf’s Senior Advisor), was political director for Hillary Clinton, and she actually shoved a Sanders delegate and the Convention and lied to get his credentials pulled. Moore has been accused of bullying behavior in other instances, and that cannot be tolerated in an elected official. I’d vote for 1) Hummel, 2) Kaplan, 3) Quan.
City Council, District 1: Dan Kalb
Dan Kalb is not always my favorite politician. He often seems to lack initiative and the courage to go against authority, but he usually ends up voting the right way and supporting human rights and civil liberties. He also has deep concerns about social justice issues, including affordable housing and homelessness. He can be too political, however. For example, when I ran for re-election for Central Committee, he endorsed all the incumbents plus Peggy Moore, but not me (I didn’t ask him or anyone else for an endorsement either, because I don’t play these type of political games). His opponent, however, showed at the Democratic candidate forum that he had very poor understanding of how the City of Oakland is ran and that he had not even looked at the budget. That may be acceptable in cities with low quality candidates such as San Leandro, but it doesn’t fly in Oakland. Plus, he will be a tool of the Police Union, which is pouring money and support behind him to punish Kalb for supporting the creation of an independent police commission. Kalb got both the Green Party and the Democratic Party endorsement. I’d vote for Kalb.
City Council, District 3: Noni Session
Noni Session is everything you want in a progressive politician. She grew up in West Oakland, and after going to Cornell for her PhD in Anthropology and spending time abroad doing field research, she’s back at home to make a difference in her community. She was recruited by other neighborhood activists to run because they felt that incumbent was not responsive to their needs. Session is a strong progressive, who registered as a Democrat to vote for Bernie Sanders, and she will be a true champion for social justice and human rights in the Council (and right now, there isn’t one). If you heed just one of my recommendations in Oakland this year, vote for Session.
I should say that I do like incumbent Lynette Gibson McElhaney, who I find to be both intelligent and thoughtful. However, she is sometimes slow to move on progressive issues, such as establishing an independent citizens police commission (but at least she moves, which can’t be said for other members of the Council) and, more disturbingly, the Grand Jury this year found that she had violated Oakland ethics and conflict of interest rules, by intervening with City staff about a development near her home. Session is too progressive for our local Demoratic Party, but she got the Green Party and the East Bay Express’ endorsements. I’d vote for Session
City Council, District 5: No recommendation
Noel Gallo is too conservative for me to actually recommend him. He is in favor of youth curfews, for example, and he was a supporter of the Domain Awareness Center for quite a while. However, he proved to be a really ally on the fight for an independent citizens’ police commission. His opponent, Viola Gonzales, opposes the Commission and has received the support of the police union. Gallo got both the Democratic and Green party nod. I would vote for Gallo.
City Council, District 7 (ranked choice): No recommendation
Incumbent Larry Reid has been MIA at the Oakland City Council for years. He often misses Council meetings, he’s inattentive when he does go and is otherwise disengaged from his work in the Council. He does get paid for it, so that probably justifies his running for re-election. Challenger Marcy Hodge failed to impress me at the candidate forum I attended. She ran for Council before, in a different district, prodded by the Don Perata machine and was plagued by scandal when she sat in the Peralta College Board. I was never able to touch base with Nehanda Imara, who is an independent, but I heard wonderful things about her from other candidates that I am recommending. That’s not enough for me to recommend her personally, but if I was in Oakland I’d vote for Imara as my first choice, and leave second choice blank.
School Board, District 1: Don Macleay
Incumbent Jody London is a tool of the charter schools association, she’s funded by them and has done their bidding. Don Macleay, meanwhile, is a solid Bernie Sanders’ progressive. He’s intelligent, thoughtful, is a dad so he has skin on the game, and takes issues of educational policy seriously. He’s been endorsed by the teachers union, Labor, the Green Party and progressive politicians. I’d vote for Macleay.
School Board, District 3: Kharyshi Wiginton
Kharyshi Wiginton is another Bernie progressive that is running to champion Oakland schools and Oakland children. She is an educator and community activist and has been endorsed by everyone, from the Teachers’ Union, to Labor, to the Green and Democratic Parties (and yours truly). I also heard Benjamin Lang speak during the Democratic endorsement and he seems a solid second choice. Whatever you do, don’t vote for charter-school sponsored Jumoke Hinton Hodge. My rank choice vote would be: 1) Wiginton, 2) Lang, 3) Narain
School Board, District 5: Mike Hutchinson
Mike is an extremely knowledgeable and committed education activist, who has become a rallying force behind the anti-charter school forces in Oakland. He knows the school district better than Board Members, has gone to every single School Board meeting and has fought to keep public schools open. Mike is also a strong progressive, who understands how a society can be broken by providing substandard education to the disadvantaged. Incumbent Roseann Torres was an ally of charger school forces, though she has since seen the light. She’s an intelligent, dedicated School Board member, and is a solid second choice. The charter school PAC is backing newcomer Huber Trenado and you should not vote for him. I’d vote for 1) Hutchinson, 2) Torres.
School Board, District 7: Chris Jackson
Chris Jackson is a young, African American version of Bernie Sanders. OK, perhaps the comparison doesn’t really carry, but Chris is a young father in the district, with vast political experience – having served as a community college trustee in San Francisco and worked for labor and legislators -, a thorough understanding of current sociological and political currents, and a personal and family commitment to create real social change. As a parent of two kids who will be in the district soon enough, he also has skin in the game. I spent hours talking to Chris, and I left in love. This is a man with a clear vision and political astuteness who can really make a difference.
His opponent, James Harris, is supported by the charter school PAC, does not live in the district (he lives in Sheffield Village, which falls within the San Leandro School District) and sends his kids to Head Royce, the most elite private school in Oakland. I’d vote for Jackson.
City Council (choose 2): No recommendations
None of the candidates submitted a questionnaire and I didn’t pursue it further.
School Board (choose 3): Hari Titan
Hari Titan calls himself the “Bernie Sanders” of Piedmont, and his progressive credentials showed up in his questionnaire. Nobody else bothered to answer it. I’d vote for Hari Titan.
Mayor: Julie Testa
I’m not sure that a recommendation from a Progressive Voter Guide will help Julie Testa much in Pleasanton, a city that has no Democrats in the City Council. She was also unlikely enough to not be able to get her statement into the Candidates Guide. However, she is a true progressive who has been fighting against unchecked development and to reform the police. For that reason, the regressive elements in the Pleasanton Democratic Party have opposed her. She has my full support. I’d vote for Testa.
City Council (vote for 2): No recommendation
All candidates are Republican. I’d write in Testa.
School Board (vote for 3): Valerie Arkin
I have served with incumbents Valerie Arkin and Jamie Yee Hintzke in the Democratic Central Committee. Both are progressive, caring women, fully committed to making Pleasanton schools the best they can be. They are intelligent, they know the district and I trust their decisions. The only reason I’m not officially recommending Hintzke is that she’s a Clinton supporter and I’m only putting my recommendation behind Berniecrats.
I was never able to get in touch with former principal Steve Maher, but I was impressed with the answers that Kathlyn Ruegsegger provided. Alas, she’s a Republican. I’d vote for Arkin, Hintzke and Ruegsegger.
City Council: No recommendation
After a disastrous candidate forum, where neither candidate seemed to be able to answer any question with any sort of knowledge, vision or intelligence, I’m planning to write in Lou Filipovich. Ed Hernandez‘ answers to my questionnaire show him to be a law-n-order conservative that will bend over backwards to please the police union (who did not even endorse him). And his answer on how to keep people in their home was to build more housing – which completely begs the question. I met with Bryan Azevedo. He’s a sheet metal worker, from a humble background, who understands first hand the importance of having a livable wage and affordable housing. Bryan is extremely green, both new to the practice and concept of politics, but he’s a good guy at heart and he seems willing to learn and listen. I think he was a little afraid of me, which is not a bad thing. I will vote for Bryan Azevedo.
Choose 2: No recommendation yet
So close to finish, but not quite there yet.